Albizia despised weed tree has good potential as an animal feed.

Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck)

Description and recommendations

Albizia lebbeck (Siris tree), Hawaii
Albizia lebbeck (Siris tree) flowers, Hawaii
Albizia lebbek, pods, Hawaii

Common names

East Indian walnut, frywood, koko, lebbek, lebbektree, siristree, women’s tongue tree, lebbekboom, ébano oriental, coração de negro, língua de mulher, língua de sogra


Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.  [Fabaceae]


Acacia lebbeck (L.) Willd., Acacia lebbek (L.) Willd., Acacia macrophylla Bunge, Acacia speciosa (Jacq.) Willd., Albizia latifolia B. Boivin, Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. var. leucoxylon Hassk., Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. var. pubescens Haines, Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. var. rostrata Haines, Albizia lebbek sensu auct., Feuilleea lebbeck (L.) Kuntze, Inga borbonica Hassk., Inga leucoxylon Hassk., Mimosa lebbeck L., Mimosa lebbek L., Mimosa sirissa Roxb., Mimosa speciosa Jacq., Pithecellobium splitgerberianum Miq.

Related feed(s)



Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.) is a deciduous, perennial and medium-sized legume tree. It reaches 3-15 m in plantations and up to 30 m in the open. Its dense shade-producing crown can be as large as 30 m in diameter. Leaves are bipinnate with 3-11 pairs of bright green, oblong leaflets, 1.5-6.5 cm long x 0.5-3.5 cm broad. Inflorescences are globular clusters of 15-40 white fragrant flowers. The fruits are 10-30 cm long x 3-6 cm broad, reddish-brown pods that contain 5-15 flat rounded, free moving seeds. They produce an incessant rattle in the wind, reminding women’s chatter, hence the name “women’s tongue” (FAO, 2010; Orwa et al., 2009; Lowry et al., 1992).

Lebbek is a multipurpose tree. As a fodder tree, its foliage, twigs, flowers and immature pods are relished by different classes of livestock (camels, cattle, small ruminants and rabbits) (FAO, 2010). It is also a source of firewood and timberwood. Lebbek is suitable for agroforestry regimes in which animal production benefits are combined with wood production (Lowry et al., 1998), and it is used for shelter belts and as shading tree in coffee or tea plantations (Orwa et al., 2009; Duke, 1983).


Lebbek is native to tropical Africa, Asia and northern Australia. It is widely naturalized within sub-humid and semi-arid tropics and subtropics where there is a marked dry season and a reliable rainy season. It is found from sea level up to 1800 m altitude (Cook et al., 2005; Lowry et al., 1992; Duke, 1983).

Optimal growth conditions are average day temperatures ranging from 19°C to 35°C, annual rainfall between 500 mm and 2500 mm and fertile, well-drained loamy soils. It may however withstand lower and more irregular rainfall conditions. It can also grow on a wide diversity of soils such as acid, alkaline or saline soils, eroded soils, laterites except heavy clays (Orwa et al., 2009; Lowry et al., 1992). It is tolerant of heavy grazing and fire (Lowry et al., 1992). Seedling are sensitive to frost and heavy browsing but older plants can survive (NAS, 1980).

Forage management

A fast growing tree, lebbek can grow up to 5 m/year in favourable conditions, though growth is much lower in dry conditions (Lowry et al., 1998). Lebbek should not be browsed regularly since it does not readily regrow (FAO, 2010). It should instead be lopped or browsed by cattle twice a year as lopping enhances coppicing and yields about 2500 kg/ha/year edible material in low rainfall areas where leucaena yields only 1500 kg/ha/year. Triennal pollarding is also worth practising since it yields 1700 kg/ha/year. Leaf dry matter yields may be as high as 5 t/ha/year (Lowry et al., 1998).


Pods have to be harvested early, when they turn yellow, to avoid insect (particuarly bruchids) attacks and to ensure good palatability. They are sun-dried until they rattle and become brittle. Collection bags should be kept open to prevent fungal development. Storage has to be as short as possible as insects attacks may also occur during storage (Cook et al., 2005). Pods are indehiscent and have to be beaten with a flail to extract seeds. Seeds are then directly sun-dried and pod segments and debris are removed in a seed cleaning machine (Cook et al., 2005).

Pods can be ground and turned into a meal (Lamela et al., 1998).

Environmental impact

Soil and pasture quality improver and erosion control

Lebbek is a very efficient N-fixing legume that nodulates abundantly without needing seed inoculation (Orwa et al., 2009). Thanks to its shade-providing dense canopy, soil moisture remains high under lebbek. Fallen leaves provide a lot of litter rich in organic matter during the dry season. The soil moisture increases litter breakdown and mineralisation of organic matter (Wild et al., 1993). Grasses growing under that canopy during the dry season are thus greener, have higher yields (1710 kg/ha under lebbek vs 753 kg between lebbek rows) and maintain their nutritive value longer. Moreover, lebbek has an extensive shallow root system that quickly binds soil in eroded lands and riverbanks (Lowry et al., 1998).

Shade provider and shelter belt

Lebbek is used to provide shade in tea, coffee or cardamom plantations. It can withstand saline sprays and is thus valuable in exposed coastal situations where it can be used to form shelter belts for less hardy plants (Orwa et al., 2009).

Potential constraints

While leaves and flowers contain no adverse constituents, pods contain saponins that may limit intake but appear to have no other adverse effect (Lowry et al., 1998).

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

  • Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck), leaves, dry
  • Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck), leaves, fresh
  • Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck), pods, dry


General considerations

Lebbek leaves, flowers and pods are all valuable feeds for ruminants. They are particularly interesting in extensive grazing systems, as they drop sequentially during the dry season (in comparable amounts for mature trees) and are eaten directly by grazing animals without requiring management (Lowry, 1989). They are recommended to supplement ruminant diets when forage matures or as dry season occurs. In agro-pastoral systems, lebbek trees may be cultivated in rows or woodlots that provide protein supplement or drought reserves (Lowry et al., 1998). In India, lebbek is one of the preferred forage tree for cows, buffalo and draught animals (Maharaj Singh et al., 2002).

Lebbek forage enhances digestible dry matter intake of low quality diets. The lower quality of the basal diet, the higher the enhancement due to lebbek (Lowry et al., 1998). Lebbek also increases nutrient digestibility and utilization in pregnant ewes fed on a Cenchrus ciliaris based diet (Pailan et al., 2003).

Lebbek forage can be fed as hay or silage, alone or mixed with grasses. Foliage mixed with grass makes a good quality silage for lactating goats (Soca et al., 1999; Solorio-Sanchez et al., 2007).

The lebbek tree has also a very positive side-effect: thanks to the high quality shade (down to 40% light transmission) it provides, it decreases animal heat stress and enhances dairy cows milk production (+0.9 litres milk/cow/day) (Sanchez et al., 1999; Lowry et al., 1998).


Lebbek leaves can have a protein content as high as 23 % DM when young, but protein content in leaf litter is about 10%. Cell wall content (as NDF % DM) increases with maturity but remains relatively high, about 40-50% (Prinsen, 1986). Being short-lived, lebbek leaves have a low lignin content and compare favourably with other legume tree leaves. They are remarkably free of toxic compounds and tannins and have very low levels of soluble phenolics and other secondary metabolites (Rai et al., 2007; Garcia et al., 2005; Garcia et al., 2006; Bhatta et al., 2005).

Reported in vitro and in vivo digestibility values are in the 45-70 % range, and about 50% for mature leaves. Leaves digestibility is high early in the season, or in regrowth after cutting, but of only moderate for mature leaves, although still of higher quality than mature grass. ME value ranges between 7.5-9.0 MJ/kg DM. In sheep, DMI for lebbek leaves ranges between 55 to almost 100 g DMI/kg LW0.75. Fallen leaves seem to be more appreciated than dry green ones (84.0 vs 61.5 DMI/kg LW0.75, Lowry, 1989). Young leaves taste bitter: intake may be limited when offered as the whole diet, but this does not affect their value as a supplement (Lowry et al., 1998).

Lebbek leaves can be included in roughage-based diets to improve the protein nutrition status of ruminants (Raghuvansi et al., 2007; Amanullah et al., 2006). Fallen leaves have considerable feed value as a supplement to dry season grass. This may be due to both its N content and a low molecular weight constituent, as well as the differing morphology and chemistry of the lignocellulose substrates beween lebbek leaves and grass (Kennedy et al., 2002). Leaves can be fed to goats as sole roughage during lean periods (Bais et al., 2002)

Lebbek leaves can replace cotton seed cake as a protein supplement in goats (Ndemanisho et al., 2006). They are better than wheat bran to improve the utilization of ammonia-treated bagasse on small holder goat farms during dry season (Balgees et al., 2009).


Fallen flowers are relished by sheep and considered as an excellent feed (Cook et al., 2005; Lowry et al., 1998)


Immature pods are well accepted by livestock but mature pods are not palatable (FAO, 2010). While pods fed alone give a poor animal response, the response becomes very positive when they supplement poor quality grass. Pods can be used both as a moderate protein source (protein content is about 20 % DM) and as an energy source (Ram Ratan et al., 2005).

Dried pods meal can supplement lactating dairy cows diet up to 50-85 % (Lamela et al., 1998).


No information found (as to 2011).


Inclusion of toasted lebbek seed meal in broiler rations resulted in lower performance and carcass characteristics even at low levels (5%), and higher incorporation resulted in high mortality. It was supposed that toasting did not decrease the anti-nutritional factors in the seeds to safe levels (Olorunsanya et al., 2010).


Rabbits have shown good growth performance when fed lebbek leaves up to 50 % of the diet (Lowry et al., 1992).

Other species


Lebbek trees are good sources of honey, as bees are particularly fond of the pollen and nectar of their fragrant flowers (FAO, 2010; Ecocrop, 2010).

Feed categories

  • Forage trees
  • Legume forages
  • Forage plants


Heuzé V., Sauvant D., Tran G., 2011. Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck). A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Last updated on November 21, 2011, 16:49


Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck), leaves, dry

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Crude protein % DM 24.0       1  
NDF % DM 46.9   44.6 49.2 2  
ADF % DM 33.7   30.5 36.9 2  
Lignin % DM 9.2   8.1 10.3 2  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Balogun et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:26


Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck), leaves, fresh

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 35.7   31.7 39.6 2  
Crude protein % DM 16.2 4.1 11.2 22.0 5  
Crude fibre % DM 29.6 5.6 26.5 39.5 5  
NDF % DM 50.0 8.1 43.2 59.0 3  
ADF % DM 35.5 5.6 31.0 41.7 3  
Lignin % DM 9.9 1.1 8.7 11.0 3  
Ether extract % DM 5.4 2.8 2.5 10.0 5  
Ash % DM 10.1 2.7 7.0 13.1 5  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8         *
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 19.3   18.4 20.2 2  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.7   1.4 2.0 2  
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Arginine % protein 4.8       1  
Cystine % protein 1.3       1  
Glycine % protein 4.7       1  
Histidine % protein 1.9       1  
Isoleucine % protein 3.9       1  
Leucine % protein 6.8       1  
Lysine % protein 4.4       1  
Methionine % protein 1.5       1  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.1       1  
Threonine % protein 4.3       1  
Tryptophan % protein 1.2       1  
Tyrosine % protein 3.7       1  
Valine % protein 4.9       1  
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 0.9   0.0 1.8 2  
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 65.6         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 62.7         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.8         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.4         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 64.5       1  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


CIRAD, 1991; Gaulier, 1968; Khajuria et al., 1968; Malik et al., 1967; Sharma et al., 1966

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:26


Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck), pods, dry

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 91.5       1  
Crude protein % DM 21.1       1  
Crude fibre % DM 23.0       1  
Ether extract % DM 4.6       1  
Ash % DM 4.6       1  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.7         *
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 86.8         *
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 54.0         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.6         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Bhannasiri, 1970

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:26




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Image credits

Image credits

            Picture title                      Credits                      License         
Albizia lebbeck (Siris tree), Hawaii Forest & Kim Starr CC BY 3.0
Albizia lebbeck (Siris tree) flowers, Hawaii Forest & Kim Starr CC BY 3.0
Albizia lebbek, pods, Hawaii Forest & Kim Starr CC BY 3.0
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